Thematically, the interface of FlowSshC/Cpp/Net can be divided into three functional groups.
The following subsections describe these groups in more detail.
The interface for manipulating public-keys and keypairs:
Public-key cryptography is a cryptographic approach that involves the use of two related keys:
Public-key cryptography has two main branches of use, namely public-key encryption and digital signatures. Digital signatures themselves can be used for authentication of the remote sender, and this is what the SSH protocol uses it for. When using public-key authentication the owner of the private-key signs a message. This signature can be verified by anyone with access to the owner's public-key, thereby proving that the sender had access to the matching private-key and is thus the entity (person or computer) it claims to be. SSH uses public-key authentication:
FlowSshC/Cpp/Net supports both server authentication and user authentication using ECDSA, RSA, and DSA public keys. Keypairs for user authentication can be created with Bitvise SSH Client, with the OpenSSH "ssh-keygen" utility, or through the FlowSshC/Cpp/Net API.
Clients and SSH connections
The interface for manipulating clients:
Before using any SSH functionality, obviously a secure encrypted connection with an SSH server must be established. This is where our client interface comes in handy. It enables one to:
What are proxy servers? Sometimes you might find yourself with reduced connectivity, because you are:
Not really the best situation for one relying on SSH, you might think. Fortunately, we can often take advantage of existing proxies to tunnel our SSH connection out in such situations. This is where FlowSshC/Cpp/Net's support for the SOCKS and HTTP CONNECT proxy protocols comes in handy. Under the hood both, SOCKS and HTTP CONNECT, are similar. In both cases, a TCP connection is established between the SSH client and the given proxy server; and in both cases, the proxy server communicates with the destination SSH server over another TCP connection.
What is SSH port forwarding? SSH port forwarding, or TCP/IP connection tunneling, is a process whereby a TCP/IP connection that would otherwise be insecure is tunneled through a secure SSH link, thus protecting the tunneled connection from network attacks. Port forwarding can be used to establish a form of a virtual private network (VPN). As the theory of port forwarding is extensively covered in our Guide to SSH port forwarding, we will only briefly recall some important information here. Port forwarding comes in two variants:
The interface for manipulating SSH channels:
In the SSH world, requests to services are made over channels. Each interactive shell and each forwarded connection for example is a channel. A single SSH connection can host multiple channels at the same time, each of them transferring data in both directions. Of course, under the hood all these channels share a single TCP connection and thus (their packets) are funneled into this one connection.
SSH specifies the following channel types:
Here we are only really interested about the session channel, while other channel types are listed for the sake of completeness. You probably remember mentioning direct-tcpip and forwarded-tcpip; both channel types are used for port forwarding and are part of the client interface which we discussed in the previous section. x11 channels are not supported by FlowSshC/Cpp/Net.
Session channels. If you execute an application remotely, start an interactive shell, or do something with the SFTP subsystem, you will internally end up using a session channel. Session channels can allocate a PTY (pseudo terminal). Without a PTY the channel is transparent and can be used to safely transfer binary data. Interactive shells are part of the ClientSessionChannel interface, and SFTP is accessed through the ClientSftpChannel interface. Although SFTP uses a session channel to transfer its binary protocol and file data, it is actually a subsystem and protocol of its own on top of it.